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MessagePosté le: Ven 28 Oct - 20:08 (2016)    Sujet du message: Phase Shift Keying Theory Pdf Download Répondre en citant

Phase Shift Keying Theory Pdf Download >

Symmetric Differential Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (SDQPSK) is like DQPSK, but encoding is symmetric, using phase shift values of 135, 45, +45 and +135. Haykin, Simon (1988). It is sometimes called Staggered quadrature phase-shift keying (SQPSK). By viewing the phase itself as conveying the information, in which case the demodulator must have a reference signal to compare the received signal's phase against; or By viewing the change in the phase as conveying information differential schemes, some of which do not need a reference carrier (to a certain extent). Analysis shows that differential encoding approximately doubles the error rate compared to ordinary M {displaystyle M} -PSK but this may be overcome by only a small increase in E b / N 0 {displaystyle E{b}/N{0}} . This yields the four phases /4, 3/4, 5/4 and 7/4 as needed. In reaching 5.5 Mbit/s and the full rate of 11 Mbit/s, QPSK is employed, but has to be coupled with complementary code keying. The bit-error rates of DBPSK and DQPSK are compared to their non-differential counterparts in the graph to the right.

These encoders can be placed before for binary data source, but have been placed after to illustrate the conceptual difference between digital and analog signals involved with digital modulation. The decision variable for the k − 1 {displaystyle k-1} th symbol and the k {displaystyle k} th symbol is the phase difference between r k {displaystyle r{k}} and r k − 1 {displaystyle r{k-1}} . ϕ ( t ) = 2 T b cos ⁡ ( 2 π f c t ) {displaystyle phi (t)={sqrt {frac {2}{T{b}}}}cos(2pi f{c}t)} . In other words, the magnitude of jumps is smaller in OQPSK when compared to QPSK. s n ( t ) = 2 E b T b cos ⁡ ( 2 π f c t + π ( 1 − n ) ) , n = 0 , 1. Stern & S. The mathematical analysis shows that QPSK can be used either to double the data rate compared with a BPSK system while maintaining the same bandwidth of the signal, or to maintain the data-rate of BPSK but halving the bandwidth needed. Q ( x ) = 1 2 π ∫ x ∞ e − t 2 / 2 d t = 1 2 erfc ⁡ ( x 2 ) , x ≥ 0 {displaystyle Q(x)={frac {1}{sqrt {2pi }}}int {x}^{infty }e^{-t^{2}/2}dt={frac {1}{2}},operatorname {erfc} left({frac {x}{sqrt {2}}}right), xgeq {}0} . It is seen that higher-order modulations exhibit higher error-rates; in exchange however they deliver a higher raw data-rate. Constellation diagram example for BPSK.

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